Basic Science Curriculum

Basic Science Curriculum

FIRST SEMESTER

MD 100 – ANATOMICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

This course comprises gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and embryology. The anatomical component of this course explores the relationship between anatomical structure and function. With the help of lectures, dissections of cadavers, presentations, group seminars, and evaluation of radiographs, students will learn and gain a basic knowledge of the clinical anatomy of adult human organ systems, including the brain and spinal cord. In order to supplement the lectures and labs, Computer-based tutorial programs and structured reviews are used. To assist the student in understanding common disease processes, special importance is given to the integration of anatomical and physiological material.

The embryological component integrates human development, which enables the students to understand the relationship between embryonic development, in terms of human body structure & function, and the underlying genetic mechanisms of congenital abnormalities.

MD 101 – MEDICAL ETHICS

Medical Ethics delivers a complete study of the legal and ethical issues confronted in the practice of medicine. A series of seminars dedicated to the discussion of various topics such as disclosure, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, respect for human rights, euthanasia, informed consent, confidentiality, the importance of communication, ethics committees, cultural concerns, truth-telling, conflicts of interest, referral, treatment of family members, sexual relationships, euthanasia, and death and dying are conducted in the Medical Ethics Course. The students will be able to discuss and debate many different ethical scenarios. Along with abstract material to facilitate conceptual and ethical analysis, Legal cases posing dilemmas that relate to each case will be presented.

SECOND SEMESTER

MD 200 – MOLECULAR & CELLULAR FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

MOLECULAR & CELLULAR FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE includes biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and immunology. Biochemistry, in general, will be focused on biochemical pathways including the Krebs cycle, glycol sis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, Ketogenesis, purine catabolism, and steroid synthesis. Macromolecules along with their functions and regulation, basic cell biology, epigenetics, biotechnology, and principles of pharmacology. In addition, chemistry and regulation of the reactions and processes involving hormones, receptors, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, coenzymes, and minerals are also included in this. The relationship between basic science and clinical medicine with an emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics, and disease causation is given special importance in this course. This course will include didactic instruction, group problem–solving exercises, and critical appraisal of the primary literature. The Genetic part of this curriculum focuses on the genetics of human populations and helps the students with understanding the principles and concepts upon which current clinical genetic practice (diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling) is based.

The microbiology component of this curriculum reflects on microbial morphology, cultural characteristics, microbial genetics, chemical properties of microorganisms, and pathogenic properties of medically significant species of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, metazoan, and viruses. It includes the basic principles of bacteriology, mycology, parasitological, virology, and immunology and their role in the disease processes, in the diagnosis, and treatment of infectious disease but is not limited to these only.

The immunology course focuses on the basics of white blood cells, humoral products of the immune cells, molecular biology and genetics of antigen recognition and presentation, immunoglobulin production, and antigen-antibody reactions. The thinking behind all this is to correlate these basic concepts with clinical manifestations of disease, the immunopathologic mechanisms of hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, transplantation, tumor immunology, reproduction, infectious diseases, immunodeficiency, and pharmacotherapy.

THIRD SEMESTER

MD 300 – PHYSIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

PHYSIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE is mainly focused on human physiology, histology, and pharmacology. The histology section of this course is a lecture and laboratory course that examines the microanatomy of cells, tissues, and organs. When we talk about the Lectures, they illustrate the microstructure of major tissues and organs in relation to their function. On the other hand, Laboratory exercises use the light microscope to study these components and make use of slides and electron micrographs for review and discussion. This is a lab-oriented program, which presents the molecular biology and histology of normal cells, tissues, and organ systems at various developmental functional stages; and their relevant pharmacology. Students gain knowledge on how individual cell functions, interact with one another, and how such interactions are accomplished from the tissue levels to the organ levels. Also, students are taught how organ systems normally function. Major organ systems that are covered in this course are: cardiovascular system, respiratory system, urinary system, reproductive system, endocrine system, gastrointestinal system, and nervous system. The integration and relationships between physiology, histology, and pharmacology is given special attention in this curriculum.

MD 303 – EPIDEMIOLOGY

EPIDEMIOLOGY teaches the fundamental principles of the distribution of diseases and their aetiologies in human populations. Students will learn basic skills in epidemiologic principles, biostatistics so that they can apply these in clinical practice and enhance their skills. Special importance will be given, on how to perform epidemiologic investigations, how to conduct a critical analysis of medical literature, and how to practice this information in practical situations.

FOURTH SEMESTER

MD 400– INTEGRATION OF BASIC SCIENCES AND CLINICAL SCIENCES

This course integrates a variety of science subjects: embryology, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, immunology, histology, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, epidemiology, behavioral sciences, ethics; and the integrated content is delivered in the organ system manner by covering the Reproductive, Endocrine systems, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Renal systems, Gastrointestinal system, Hematologic, Immune, Integumentary, and Musculoskeletal systems as well as Multisystem disease. Other than all this, students will learn the relationship between individual systems, pharmacology, and clinical medicine with an emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics, and disease causation.

In this curriculum, students will be taught about the relations between basic science and clinical medicine with an emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics, and disease causation. Adding onto that, In the first three semesters, there will be an integration of concepts that will be taught and learned. Each of these interactive sessions will be consisting of moral instruction, group problem–solving exercises, and critical appraisal of the primary literature. The concepts of critical thinking will be introduced to the students. Finally, at the end of this curriculum, students will be ready to identify and frame a clinical question based on therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, or aetiology; develop a focused strategy to identify aetiology of the disease, diagnose, and construct a plan of management independently on their own. Understanding disease processes and clinical problem solving is given special importance. This particular course is studied in the second year (semesters 4 and 5) over a period of 8 months, alongside the MD 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS.

MED 404 – BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE focuses on basic principles of human behavior in relation to biological, social, and cultural settings. Normal and abnormal behavioral theories are studied here, they further include the overview of personality development, interviewing techniques, death education, human sexuality, and psychophysiological disorders including stress management and biofeedback. Additionally, many different classes of psychotropic drugs, their mechanism, adverse effects, drug interactions, contraindications, and indications are discussed and studied here.

FIFTH SEMESTER

MED 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS

In this semester the students will be able to study and practice the fundamentals of patient-physician communication skills, they will have to fulfill different responsibilities such as initiating the session, building the relationship, exploration of problems, understanding the patient agenda and structuring the consultation, performing a physical exam, patient-centered history taking, including explaining and planning a treatment plan and communication skills in specific situations, including delivering bad news, cultural and social diversity, and demonstration of empathy. The format starts with chief complaints, other signs and symptoms, present medical history, past medical history, family history, social history, and a complete review of systems. Students will also be taught to perform a complete screening physical exam and will continue to develop documentation skills with oral presentations and patient notes. They will also be taught clinical skills pertaining to specific occasions including patients with mental illness, communicating with other caregivers, and providing advocacy and support. Physical exam skills will be enhanced by more comprehensive instruction in the physical exam skills that correspond to the organ systems studied, such as the integumentary, gastrointestinal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, reproductive, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and nervous systems. Documentation skills will be further advanced with focused patient visits, additionally, instruction on medical order writing, diagnostic decision-making, prescription writing, complete history taking, and performing a systematic physical exam with oral presentations and the patient note. This course is taught in the second year (semesters 4 and 5) alongside the MD 400 – INTEGRATION OF BASIC SCIENCES AND CLINICAL SCIENCES, over the period of 8 months.

MD 505 – APPLIED MEDICINE

In this course, students will be introduced to concepts of critical thinking. By the time this course ends, students will be able to identify and frame a clinical question based on therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, or etiologist; independently come up with a focused strategy to identify aetiology of the disease, diagnose, and construct a plan of management. Special attention is given to the understanding of disease processes and clinical problem-solving. The course is taught in the second year (semesters 4 and 5) over a period of 8 months, alongside the MD 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS.

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